Wednesday, 28 December 2016

Pallens/Lutescens are both light coloured varieties of Epipactis atrorubens.


(FOR LUTESCENS CHECK THE BOTTOM OF PAGE)

These plants are not white, but yellowish-green. The German theologian and botanist Konrad Friedrich Ludwig Beckhaus (1821-1890) described this variant as Epipactis atrorubens var. pallens in his Flora von Westfalen published in 1893; synonyms are Epipactis atrorubens lus. pallens and Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens. (credit for this information to the German site 'Albiflora')

Collage made up of "Pallens" specimens which we have on Hutton Roof (Click over to enlarge)
Top: Pallens 1 and Pallens 2, Middle Lutescens/Pallens 3, Pallens 4, Pallens 5 Bottom: Pallens 6 and Pallens 7 (2 photos)

Colour definitions for Epipactis atrorubens var ‘Pallens’ found on Hutton Roof in Cumbria.

Outer Sepals
The outer sepals are of a main light green/lemony colour and just slightly darker than the petal, this slightly darker is mainly caused by the lightest of a red wash over the green, but still the green appears the dominant colour rather than the red wash.

Outer Petals
The petal can only be described as lemon or a pallid yellow in colour throughout without any other influence

Inner Sepals
The sepals continue to show a light lemony/green but will more than likely (but not always the case) be dappled with red spots or smudges which are easily noticeable, especially in the lower sepals. This association of red is put down to a ‘ruben’ influence.

Inner Petals
The petal continue to show a lemon or pallid yellow in colour  but will more than likely (but not always the case) be dappled with red spots or smudges which are easily noticeable. This association of red is the ‘ruben’ influence.

Hyperchile
The Hyperchile both inner and outer is lemon in colour without any staining or other influences.

Epichile
The Epichile is cream but sometimes with a patchy lemon staining, and this may or may not be dappled with small red spots and smudges throughout. 

Boss
The two bosses are usually a cream colour which may or may not be dappled with red spots and smudges throughout. 

Ovary
Is ridged and usually light green in colour or sometimes browny/reddish or browny/green, slightly hairy with a look resembling being frosty. 

Stem
The stem is usually light green and variable, and slightly hairy with a look resembling being frosty.



Just to give you an idea of the contrast amongst
Lutescens/pallens here I show three variations in colour 
which we have on Hutton Roof

eg: 1 left) Lutescens - strong brilliant yellow with or without red
2 top right) Pallens - Green looking with pale dirty yellow and (red)
3 bottom right) Pallens - Insipid looking extremely pallid
Really good stem 'variant' examples 

The eleven recorded "Pallens of Hutton Roof" together with their histories are photographed and recorded below:

I guess here with the Atrorubens "Pallens" (or light forms) that we do have something really special which can be seen on Hutton Roof (Cumbria). Besides Hutton Roof the rare pallens have been recorded elsewhere in Cumbria, with the first light form being recorded on Helsington Barrows (by Alan Gendle back in 2008) and other records have been made this year with specimens starting to turn up with one seen by Carol Armstrong again on Helsington Barrows (9th July 2019), although Carol has noticed them at the same area since 2016, and a further fine example by Maggie Bellwood (Leeds) on Scout Scar (17th July 2019)

Throughout Hutton Roof with over (100 hectares in total), I cannot say I have found the pallens (or light forms) widespread, and I have only found them within a small 400 yard diameter section of one localised area within Hutton Roof complex which this same area is also representative of 95% of the established fertile hybrid Epipactis schmalhauseneii. At times when I actually look at the "pallens plants" I wonder to myself whether we are actually dealing more with a hybrid in its possible forms rather than a variety of which it is currently classified! 

Although all eleven of the Hutton Roof "pallens (or light forms)" do have visual similarities, there are also many individual differences in particular to the depths of colour eg: greens, lemon and mottled red. There are no two plants the same.

Obviously at this stage I feel I probably need to look at each plant as a separate entity or varietal name from the Pallens umbrella, so for now have given them the names of Pallens, 1,2,3,4,4a,5,5a,6,7,8,9.....

2019 Summary - Pallens 1 (no show this year),2 (OK) ,3 (abort through ants undermining), 4 (OK), 4a (OK),5 (OK), 5b (OK), 6 (OK), 7 (OK), 8 (OK), 9 (OK). (9 positive in total with 2 failed)

Pallens No.1


found in the "9s" designated area in July 2014

The following plant was found by Alan Gendle and Bryan Yorke on Hutton Roof in July 2014 and from the next two photos below you can see just how green looking it is:

Our very first "Pallens" Variety - found by Alan Gendle and Bryan Yorke in 2014 
Click over photo to enlarge

Another photo of the first Pallens Variety found on Hutton Roof by Alan Gendle and Bryan Yorke in 2014 -
 This plant does show some "red" specking on both the frilly bosses and also the undersides of the petals 

2015 update
The plant came through again in 2015 but sadly the plant did not make it because of deer predation before maturity.

2016 update
Below I have taken a photo of how it was in 2016 (see photo below).
The 2016 Plant stands at about 10" high and we have had it secured in a wire cage surround for the past two years.  Here is a photo showing the same plant in 2016.


Pallens No.1 in 2016 -  Click over to enlarge
I notice this year the plant has come through with far more "purple" showing, you can see this in particular to the ovaries and mixed in within the sepals. 
2017 update
Sadly the same plant Pallans No.1 did not survive to full maturity in 2017, although the plant did reach full growth and showed a flowerhead and was just days before flowering when it actually keeled over and it was suspected that the plant had been attacked directly in its root stock by something unknown predator eg: slug or otherwise, but no confirmation of what had caused it could be resolved.
2018 update 
 The plant was not seen or recorded
2019 update  
The plant was not seen or recorded

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IS IT LUTESCENS, OR IS IT PALANS, OR IS IT ALBIFLORA - THE FOLLOWING GERMAN SITE SHOWS SOME REALLY GOOD PHOTOS.  

Some nice follow up reading at the following German website: http://www.albiflora.eu/blog/?page_id=1134

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Pallens No.2  (originally called 9a and derives from parentage No.9)


No.9a variety 'Pallens' which is a very light plant (Click over to enlarge)
A photo from  8th July 2017.

2015, 2016, 2017 - 9a (Pallens No.2)

This is a well established plant and was first recorded in 2015 and came through a little darker than shown in the above photo but still very light in colour.  It was also a very weak and fragile specimen and had several kinks within its build. In both 2016 and again this year (2017) the plant has gone from strength to strenth.  The plant however still retains a kink just above half way up.  The plant is about 13" high and usually has between 17 and 21 flowers.

The next photo (below) shows a more close up of the plant which is clear to have lemon coloured sepals, yet very light washed pink on its yellow petals. Also the rib of the petals and sepals is not showing any red pronounced line like you come to expect with (Lemon Petalled or Lempets). The underside of the petals does show some pink blotch and spot staining which you can associate clearly with the Pallens variety. Also of note is the very light (but NOT white) epichile, whilst the large ragged bosses do have a red flush to them.  Another interesting fact of these plants can be the light green ovaries.  For now I have linked this specimen to a number 9 in ancestry although that would need dna investigation to confer. The geographical of this plant is approx 14ft away from that 9 ancestry plant which no longer is with us.



2018 - 9a (Pallens No.2)

 Came through as usual and was at it's regular height, but just about the time the buds were due to open the plant was predated and its plume went missing.  Culprit Roe Deer had delicately taken it through the segments of the cage.


2019 - 9a (Pallens No.2)

 Specimen No.9a which has come up every year since my first observations on it in 2015 although last year unfortunately it was taken down by predation.  It has always shown as a very pallid form and is in the good company of the No.9 population in which there are several in that same area which may take on this rather special pallid form.

Specimen No.9a Epipactis atrorubens var: pallens  (click over to enlarge)
Photo: taken at Hutton Roof on 17th July 2015


Specimen No.9a Epipactis atrorubens var: pallens  (click over to enlarge)
Photo: taken at Hutton Roof on 8th July 2017

Specimen No.9a Epipactis atrorubens var: pallens  (click over to enlarge)
Photo: taken at Hutton Roof on 15th June 2019

Specimen No.9a Epipactis atrorubens var: pallens  (click over to enlarge)
Photo: taken at Hutton Roof on 15th June 2019

More 2019 Pallens No.2 notes: 

Now then what is so interesting about this particular plant is that it shows no red in the base stem or basal leaf, which is so unusual, although sometimes the flowers on this specimen can show more red than usual.

Generally I have found that in all pallen forms it is usual to get some sort of atrorubens (red) influence somewhere on the plant and in 99 times out of one hundred it would show in the base stem and basal leaf or at the sheaths along the lower stem, but here we have a exception to the rule, which makes it so much more interesting for the study.



Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (Dark Red Helleborine) No. 9a (or Pallens No.2)
8th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
Lots of history with this one and possible Schmal hybrid but for now
stay with atrorubens pallens
showing far more red in epichile this year


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (Dark Red Helleborine) No. 9a
8th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
Lots of history with this one and possible Schmal hybrid but for now
stay with atrorubens pallens
showing far more red in epichile and petals this year


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (Dark Red Helleborine) No. 9a
8th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
Lots of history with this one and possible Schmal hybrid but for now
stay with atrorubens pallens

showing far more red in epichile and petals this year


(Lutescens) - Pallens No.3 (2017)

The next plant of special interest within this section is our only Lutescens/Pallens Specimen Escarp No.8 (2017) or better known as Pallens 3 which I first discovered in 2017.


This is Escarp No. 8 or Lutescens/Pallens No.3 
 A very yellowy pale form which came through in 2017 (Click over to enlarge)

2017 - Escarp 8 or )Lutescens/Pallens 3 This is a beautiful plant which we have been so privileged to witness this year for the first time. It has managed to survive throughout its growing season without incurring predation, although after saying that one of the flowers and it's hypochile have had a piece taken out of them. I also want to show another photo here which has more close up views.

Another photo of Escarp 8 or Lutescens/Pallens 3 in close up (Click over to enlarge)
This is a good photo which gives a clearer picture of the situation. It is without doubt a very light/bright phase plant and full of bright yellow hence it be Lutescens.  A feature sometimes associated with or without is the red blotches or staining to the epichile/bosses and outer sepals.  Although of a creamy background they have a gentle light specking or mottled light red, which also features on the undersides of the sepals. Again a very strong bright light green stem and with light green ovaries. The photo also shows a light red wash staining to the upper sepals which is hardly noticeable in the immediate view.  Although we do call it a "Lutescens/Pallans" variety. 

2018 - Escarp 8 or Pallens 3  Was taken down in its early days (at about 6") although it had been caged and all evidence looked very much like possible slug damage or other underground problems (eg: wobble foundations). It's close neighbour which is a regular but small red atrorubens has come through OK.

2019 - Escarp 8 or Pallens 3  The specimen came through OK and grew to about 4" before lying dormant and then withering away.  When I investigated there were obvious signs the leaves had been attacked and holes appeared in the leaves as though chunks had been bitten out.  On closer examination I lifted a stone which was about 6" from the plant and underneath the stone there were about 200 brown ants and lots of white chrysalis.  I am sure that the plant suffered very much from undermining with all these ants and probably led to the downfall of this beautiful specimen for yet another year.

Pallens No.4 (2017)

Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens No.4 (Click over to enlarge)
Photo: Hutton Roof July 2017


Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens No.4 (Click over to enlarge)
Photo: Hutton Roof July 2017

Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens No.4 (Click over to enlarge)
Photo: Hutton Roof July 2017



Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4)
Photo: 10th July 2019 - Hutton Roof

Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4)
Photo: 10th July 2019 - Hutton Roof

Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4)
Photo: 10th July 2019 - Hutton Roof

This photo shows Pallens 4 to the right and Pallens 4a to the left





This photo above shows how close Pallens 4,4a,5,5a are to one another. In the foreground the larger red circle is Pallens 4, and the smaller red circle is Pallens 4a.  In the background the circle up against the hazel tree is Pallens 5 and the red circle 2 metre at the front of Pallens 5 is 5a. 

2018 - After regular checking out the plant during June, I could not find any evidence that it has come through. Although there is one that has which is quite close and shows all the signs of a "pallens" (No.5)

2019 - (Update 10th July 2019) Plant has successfully come through again and photo shown above. Also it now has another pallens showing within one metre, (4a)  and within about 3 metres there is also two more pallens  No.5 and 5a. 


Pallens No. 4a (2019)


Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4a)
Photo: Hutton Roof on 11th July 2019

Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4a)
Photo: Hutton Roof on 11th July 2019



Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4)
Photo: 10th July 2019 - Hutton Roof


Epipactis atrorubens var: Pallens (4) and (4a)
Photo: 22nd July 2019 - Hutton Roof
Shows the swelling of the ovaries so quickly!


This photo (above) shows Pallens 4 to the right and Pallens 4a to the left





This photo above shows how close Pallens 4,4a,5,5a are to one another. In the foreground the larger red circle is Pallens 4, and the smaller red circle is Pallens 4a.  In the background the circle up against the hazel tree is Pallens 5 and the red circle 2 metre at the front of Pallens 5 is 5a. 

Pallens No.5 (2018)

2018 - "Palans" NW of 55 - discovered in July 2018 and a feeble plant.

With most of our Pallens, the ovaries are light green or lemony in colour whereby on this specimen they are browny/green. Also different on this specimen is that it does not show red dots or smudges, yet it does show a light red wash over the sepals and also red on the midrib of the petals.



Very small "Palans" plant showing at about 50 yards NW of 55
The plant nestles at the LH bottom corner of a large hazel and could easily be overlooked
(Click over to enlarge)


2019 Update (July 11th 2019)  The plant has come through again in 2019 but shows far more vigour throughout and here is a updated photo: 


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.5) Dark Red Helleborine var: Pallens (No.5)
Photo: Hutton Roof 10th July 2019



Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.5) Dark Red Helleborine var: Pallens (No.5)
Photo: Hutton Roof 10th July 2019



This photo above shows how close Pallens 5 which is tucked in beneath the hazel tree is to 5a which is about 2m away in the foreground.



This photo above shows how close Pallens 4,4a,5,5a are to one another. In the foreground the larger red circle is Pallens 4, and the smaller red circle is Pallens 4a.  In the background the circle up against the hazel tree is Pallens 5 and the red circle 2 metre at the front of Pallens 5 is 5a. 

Pallens No. 5a (2019)


Looking at the general profile and colouring and geographical distance away from Pallens 5 it is without question that this specimen must be a later offspring. 

With most of our Pallens, the ovaries are light green or lemony in colour whereby on this specimen they are browny/green. Also different on this specimen is that it does not show any red dots or smudges, yet it does show a light red wash over the sepals. and also slight red on part of the midrib of the petals


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (Click over to enlarge)
Photo: July 10th 2019 - Hutton Roof

Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (Click over to enlarge)
Photo: July 10th 2019 - Hutton Roof


This photo above shows how close Pallens 5 which is tucked in beneath the hazel tree is to 5a which is about 2m away, and shows in the foreground.



This photo above shows how close Pallens 4,4a,5,5a are to one another. In the foreground the larger red circle is Pallens 4, and the smaller red circle is Pallens 4a.  In the background the circle up against the hazel tree is Pallens 5 and the red circle 2 metre in front is Pallens 5a. 

2019 (July 10th) Found for the first time. Came through within one metre from Pallens No.5, similar make up profiles and colouring to No.5 eg: no red spotting, just a hint of red on the outer sepals and part of the petal midrib. Browny/green ovaries. Slightly hairy to ovary and stem resembling them being frosty!

Pallens No.6 (2017)


Now I would like to move on to Specimen 9k or Pallens No.6 which was found in 2017. 



Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.6) 
This is 9k which was only found on 13th July 2017
 (Click over to enlarge)



Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.6) 
Photo: 25th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
 (Click over to enlarge)

Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.6) 
Photo: 24th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
 (Click over to enlarge)

This is a plant I just found by sheer accident and it was behaving more in a creeper fashion when I first found it, as shown in the top photo, but on closer inspection it bore all the make up to qualify for "Pallans". 


The light green was there again throughout the stem and ovaries.  The flowers were lemony and lighter to both sepals and petals and again had all the regular staining of red dots and dashes.

2018 update  Plant never found during 2018

Also worth a mention is that Pallans No.1 which is shown in the very early photographs (prior to 2017) got to the pre flowering stage when it just keeled over and on close inspection looked to me as though perhaps a predator (slug or otherwise) had got to its rootstock, so we are without this one this year.  I just wanted to particularly mention it at this stage because No.9k is perhaps a few yards from that No.1 specimen.

2019 update 

Plant was found again in mid July and now photographed on 24th July 2019. Its about the same size 10" and now upright (see photos)


Pallens No. 7 (Rich M) (2015)


Pallens in the 55 population block 


A Palans plant within metres of 55
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Richard Mielcarek who found it in 2015

A Pallans plant within metres of 55
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Richard Mielcarek, who found the plant in - 2015

From back in 2015.  The plant never matured fully during 2016 or 2017 and just comes through with base leaves but no flowerhead.  


2018 update
Pallens No.7- in 2018
 - same plant that Richard Mielcarek found and photographed
 in 2015 and shown above

Pallens No.7- in 2018
 - same plant that Richard Mielcarek found and photographed
 in 2015 and shown above


A beautiful plant which was re-discovered in 2018. 

2019 update


(13th July 2019) The plant has come through well and here below are the photos taken today. (18th July 2019) I have noticed the plant has succumb to a colony of
Black Aphids with large ants in attendance.  I did attempt to knock them off
the plant without much success!




Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens No.7 (Dark Red Helleborine)
Photo: 13th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
I have a good history of this plant since Rich Meilcarek first found it in 2015



Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens No.7 (Dark Red Helleborine)
Photo: 13th July 2019 - Hutton Roof
I have a good history of this plant since Rich Meilcarek first found it in 2015

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Pallens 8

I found this one in 2018 and it is slap bang in the middle of the 9's populations and going by the make-up of the plant, I would have expected to have originated from the original schmal 9. 


 Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.8) Click over to enlarge
Photo: 13th July 2019



This shows you the new Pallens No.8 (left) against and for comparisons the original No.9 Schmalhauseneii (right) which we had back in 2014,2015 but not since. This particular plant as always had its very unique colouring and profile of which there are no further plants on the whole of Hutton Roof that can meet this same criteria. The new Pallens 8 lies in the position of approx 6ft away from the original No.9 Schmal (shown on right), so I wonder if it can be a re-incarnation of schmal 9 (I doubt it because of the distance!). Is more than likely to be yet another schmalhauseneii although at this point the colour in the flower has obviously not fully developed to how its parent looked back in 2014 - So is this a comeback from the original parent or is it more likely to be a offspring from that original parent?  The missing years between them are 2016,2017.  One thing I am sure about is that this is from the same gene pool!  

  Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.8) Click over to enlarge
Photo: 13th July 2019

 Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.8) Click over to enlarge
Photo: 13th July 2019

 Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens (No.8) Click over to enlarge
Note we have no red showing in the lower third with this specimen which is just the same with the other nearby specimen Pallens 2
Photo: 13th July 2019

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Pallens No.9 (found 17th July 2019)


This is a rare variety "pallens" found today and will take the designation of No.9.
This year we do have 9 specimens which have flowered successfully (2 have not come through).


This one is slightly different and takes on a more insipid look to the specimen, also of note are the darker ovaries. 

Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens No.9
Photo: 17th July 2019 - Hutton Roof 

 Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens No.9
Photo: 17th July 2019 - Hutton Roof 


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens No.9

Photo: 17th July 2019 - Hutton Roof 


Below are Pallens
 recorded from other areas:


Pallens - (A. Gendle) on Helsington Barrows

Alan Gendle had previously found the very first Pallens for the Cumbria County in 2008.   Just for the record here below is Alan's first Pallens find which was found near Helsington Barrows.

Cumbria's very first "Pallens" first found in 2008 by Alan Gendle (Photo: Alan Gendle)
Click over to enlarge



This is a photo of where Cumbria's first recorded "Pallens" variety was found by Alan Gendle
in 2008 (photo: Alan Gendle) Click over to enlarge

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Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens 
Found by and photo by Carol Armstrong on 9th July 2019
Helsington Barrows.


Epipactis atrorubens var Pallens 
Found by and photo by Maggie Bellwood (Leeds) on 17th July 2019
Scout Scar.


Epipactis atrorubens var. pallens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner

Epipactis atrorubens var. pallens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner

Epipactis atrorubens var. pallens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany

Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner

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LUTESCENS information

As yet I cannot confirm that I have ever recorded this particular variety on the Hutton Roof complex, although it is thought it could well turn up on our doorstep very soon.

The Lutescens variety is very much like the Pallen's form although with Lutescens you do NOT get any presence of red

Just to try and help on this I have been kindly allowed to show examples of the Lutescens forms (seen below). These photos were taken by Uwe Grabner who found these plants at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany (shows beautiful area photo below)


Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner


Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner


Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner


Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner


Epipactis atrorubens var. lutescens
 found at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner


Showing where the Lutescens varieties were found
at Lake Eibsee, not far from Garmish-Partenkirchen,
Bavaria, Germany
Photo: Kindly shared to us by Uwe Grabner